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Automaton

An automaton in chess refers to a mechanical device built to play chess against a human opponent.

Pronunciation: /ɔːˈtɒmətən/

Similar terms: Mechanical Turk, artificial intelligence, chess engine, robot, computer chess, AI opponent, chess simulation, programmable machine, chess automaton, self-playing machine

So, what exactly is an automaton?

An automaton in the context of chess is essentially a machine designed to mimic human movements in playing chess.

These devices are typically constructed with intricate mechanisms that allow them to move chess pieces on a board, simulating a game against a human player.

They are often powered by clockwork or electronic means and may include an element of illusion to appear more lifelike or capable.

History and Origin of Automaton

The most famous chess automaton was “The Turk,” created in the late 18th century by Wolfgang von Kempelen.

It was designed to impress Empress Maria Theresa of Austria with its ability to play chess competently against human opponents.

The Turk was later revealed to be a hoax, containing a human chess master hidden inside who controlled the movements.

Why is Automaton important?

Automatons were among the earliest forms of artificial intelligence related to games.

They played a crucial role in sparking interest in the possibility of machines performing complex tasks such as playing strategic games, leading to the development of modern computer chess programs and AI research.

Examples of Automaton

  1. The Turk: As mentioned, this was a fake automaton that could supposedly play strong chess games against human opponents.
  2. Ajeeb: Another popular chess-playing automaton of the 19th century, also eventually revealed to have a human operator.

Variations of Automaton

No significant variations of chess automatons exist as modern technology has shifted towards fully digital chess engines and AI, which do not require physical forms to operate.

Famous examples of Automaton

  • The Turk vs. Benjamin Franklin: One of the notable games where The Turk, the chess automaton, played against Benjamin Franklin, showcasing its “abilities” and entertaining audiences of the time.
  • The Turk vs. Napoleon Bonaparte: Another famous instance where The Turk was pitted against Napoleon Bonaparte, further cementing its fame and the intrigue surrounding automata in chess.

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